I-FMD's Material and Devices
Fridays at 12 pm
Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/97958879534
Fall 2020 Schedule
New research directions often evolve from transferring concepts from one area of research to another. This talk will draw on examples of this from my own research experience. The underlying theme will be novel processing, and how different reaction/processing routes can be modelled and exploited to achieve desirable microstructures and properties. Topics to be considered include reaction bonding in alumina ceramics, patterning of sapphire substrates for III-nitride growth, and single crystal growth by reaction synthesis.
Professor Helen Chan is New Jersey Zinc Professor of Materials Science and Engineering. She received her B.Sc. and Ph.D. form Imperial College, University of London. She joined the Lehigh faculty in 1986, and subsequently took an 18-month leave of absence at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, where she investigated mechanical properties of ceramics. She returned to Lehigh in 1988, becoming Full Professor in 1995. She served as Chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering 2006 - 2016.
Dr. Chan is the author of over 190 publications, 5 US patents,165 contributed talks, and over 110 invited presentations. Her work has been cited in > 7,100 publications. Her research interests include: 1) Application of reactive processing to fabricate unique ceramic/metal structures, 2) Processing, properties and advanced characterization of high entropy alloys, 3) Mechanical behavior of ceramic composites, 4) Role of interfacial chemistry in determining the elevated temperature mechanical behavior of ceramics. Dr. Chan chaired the 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Solid State Ceramics.
Dr. Chan is a Fellow and a member of the Board of Directors of the American Ceramic Society. She received its Roland B. Snow award five times. She was also a recipient of ASM International's Bradley Stoughton Award for outstanding young faculty in the field of Materials Science & Engineering. She is also a recipient of Lehigh’s Libsch award for excellence in research, Hillman Award for “teaching, research work and advancing the interests of the university”, and the Service Teaching Excellence award on 3 separate occasions. In 2016, she was awarded a Fulbright Visiting Professorship at TU Graz, Austria. She is one of the researchers highlighted in the book “Successful Women Ceramic and Glass Scientists and Engineers: 100 Inspirational Profiles,” by L. Madsen, Wiley, 2015.
With the rise in importance of nanoscale materials for computing, energy generation, and biomedical applications, it has become crucial to control surfaces and interfaces. This talk will discuss some of the emerging methods that are used to characterize surfaces, with a particular focus on IFMD's state-of-the-art low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) instruments.
Ryan is a surface scientist at IFMD, where he runs, maintains, and designs experiments for the NAP-XPS and LEIS instruments. He received his PhD in Physics from Rutgers University studying diffusion pathways in lithium ion batteries. Prior to joining Lehigh, he was a postdoc at Rutgers researching the surface termination of novel semiconductor devices.
During this IFMD Ground-Rounds talk we will first look back at how Authur Ashkin overcame the challenges during his two decades of struggles before a true single beam optical trapping was invented in 1986 – leading to his Nobel Prize in 2018. We will then explore major breakthroughs in science and technologies using Ashkin’s invention. Contributions from Lehigh students will be mentioned. We will end by asking questions on how Ashkin might have envisioned new applications of optical tweezers in the future science and technology endeavors.
Ou-Yang grew up in Taiwan. He came to the US for graduate study and received his Ph.D. in physics from UCLA. He did postdoctoral training at the U. Penn by doing research at the Exxon Corporate Research Laboratory. He joined Lehigh University in 1988 and is now a Professor of Physics and Bioengineering and also serves as the director of the Emulsion Polymers Institute. During his academic leave Ou-Yang served visiting positions at institutes in France, Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea. At Lehigh Ou-Yang works in soft matter and biological physics.
The world is experiencing unprecedented economic growth and increase in human population, thereby requiring more sustainable utilization of natural resources. Fertilizer production and usage is strongly correlated with food output and food security. While more than 200 million fewer people are undernourished than in 1990, 795 million people still remained undernourished in 2015. With the world population expected to grow by 35% to 9 billion by 2050, providing people around the world with nutritious supply of food at reasonable cost, is one of the greatest challenges. Fertilizer demand hence is expected to grow to about 200.5 million metric tons of (N+P2O5+K2O) in 2018. Urea, CO(NH2)2, has been the most prominent N fertilizer making up ~60% of global nitrogen fertilizer use. Since the process to synthesize ammonia (NH3), a reactant used to make urea, remains energy intensive and uses up to 1 % of the global energy and ~4 % of natural gas, it is critical that the urea nitrogen applied to soils is fixated in plants and not released in the form of gaseous NH3 or otherwise lost to the environment. Unfortunately, only about 50% of the nitrogen fertilizer applied is absorbed by the crops. Importantly, the overall production of the cropping systems indicated no benefit in terms of yield to be expected from simple increase of N fertilization in the absence of radical agronomical improvement of the cropping system. In particular, while in grassland this N surplus is generally stored in the soil organic matter pool, in the case of cropland, most of it is leached quickly as nitrate, emitted as NH3 or denitrified as N2, and N2O as a by-product. It is important to note that the external inputs for higher crop production, such as fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, are reliant on non-renewable fossil fuels. With increasing costs for transport and natural gas and oil, the use of these agrochemical inputs becomes increasingly expensive, especially for resource-deficient, small-scale farmers. Their energy-intensive production and shipment around the world is, in the long run, not sustainable. Urea and NH4+ are increasingly recovered from source separated wastewater, NH4+ in the form of struvite, (NH4)2SO4 - readily used as a fertilizer - or (NH4)2CO3 which is low cost, widely used in China but has poor thermal stability and quickly decomposes under humid environment. At the forefront a variety of solutions have been proposed, farming with rocks and minerals has emerged due to the wide availability of raw materials, their low costs and minor environmental impact. Commercial fertilizers usually provide the three macronutrients, N, P and K. Only in recent years do the fertilizer producers in some developing countries include secondary macronutrients, Ca, Mg and S and essential micronutrients, such as Zn, in their formulas. Many of the rock and mineral fertilizer materials contain a multitude of nutrients, including micronutrients. We posit that a paradigm shift from organophosphorus synthetic urease and nitrification inhibitors towards natural mineral derived urea and NH4+ co-crystals synthesized using green mechanochemical methods will decrease N losses into sensitive air, inland and marine water bodies while also enhancing other macronutrient (Ca, Mg, S) and micronutrient availability and solubility. This presentation will show the complexities emerging from operating the fertilizer industry via business as usual and the pathways that can lead to more sustainable developments.
Jonas Baltrusaitis graduated from University of Iowa in 2007 with PhD in physical chemistry with emphasis on sour gas reaction with mineral oxide surfaces. In 2014 he joined Lehigh University Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering to work on natural gas conversion and and nutrient containing feedstock sustainable process design. He's a coauthor of more than 200 papers in environmental chemistry, photocatalysis and sustainable process design and a recent recipient of the 2020 ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Lectureship Award.
Friday, October 23
The remarkable versatility of hydrogen as an impurity in semiconductors
Michael Stavola, Physics
The “simple” hydrogen impurity participates in a rich variety of phenomena in semiconductors and transparent conducting oxides. H has fascinating fundamental properties and strongly impacts electronics technology. In recent years, many of the properties of isolated H and H-containing defects in semiconductors have begun to be understood in considerable detail due to the strong, synergistic interaction between experiment and theory. Nevertheless, H continues to provide new surprises and new puzzles that challenge us. This talk will be a survey of the properties of H in semiconductors and its impacts on electronics technology.
Michael Stavola received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Rochester in 1980 and was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, from 1980-1989. Stavola then joined the faculty of Lehigh University where he is the Sherman Fairchild Professor of Physics. He was chair of the Department of Physics (2003-2009) and an Associate Dean in the College of Arts and Sciences (2009-2012). The focus of Stavola’s research has been on the physics of defects and impurities in semiconductors. While Stavola’s most sustained effort has been on the hydrogen impurity in semiconductors, the common thread that extends throughout his work is the insightful use of spectroscopy to extract key experimental information.
Stavola is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and of the Institute of Physics (United Kingdom). He received a Humboldt Research Award for Senior US Scientists for visits to the Dresden University of Technology and received Lehigh’s Libsch Award for excellence in research in 2014.
Spring 2020 Schedule
Thursday, July 9
Charge-regulation during bacterial adhesion: Can we design of surfaces to manipulate bioenergetics, chemical bioavailability, and surface sensing?
Derick Brown, Civil & Environmental Engineering
Thursday, July 30
Harnessing the Donnan membrane Principle in Developing Smart Materials and Processes in Water Space
Arup SenGupta, Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering / Civil & Environmental Engineering
For more information, please contact Nikki Rump.
*Grand Rounds is a term borrowed from the medical education community to share the latest, unique advancements across all specialties. The lectures will be at the “Scientific American” level and will be suitable for all STEM audience.
*All Graduate students and post docs who join the call will be entered into a raffle for $100 gift card!
*Lectures are open to the public and will be recorded.