I-FMD Grand Rounds

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I-FMD's Material and Devices
Grand Rounds
 

Fridays at 12 pm
 

 

Previously recorded seminars. Log in required.

 

Fall 2021 Schedule

September 24, 2021

A Materials Science Perspective of Quantum Materials
Dr. Venkataraman Swaminathan, Distinguished Research Fellow, Lehigh University

Introduction provided by Himanshu Jain

Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/91985375211

Abstract:
The experimental discovery of topological insulators, the emergence of graphene with exotic properties, and the exciting optoelectronic properties of van der Waals materials, all have energized researchers from physics, materials science and engineering and have brought them under the scientific canopy of quantum materials (QMs). QMs offer the exciting promise of new applications such as dissipationless electronics using topological currents and quantum spins, secure quantum computing and communication, and of different realms in energy harvesting using photovoltaics and thermoelectrics. Before harnessing some of these exciting applications, not only advances in the fundamental understanding of QMs are required, but also practical solutions to the myriad material challenges are imperative. This talk will cover a general introduction to QMs, their functions, synthesis & characterization, and an assessment of their realistic application potential in the near-to-mid-term.

Biography:
Dr. Venkataraman (“Swami”) Swaminathan obtained his doctorate in Materials Science from the University of Southern California in 1975. He worked at Bell Laboratories for 24 years in many aspects of fiber optic communication systems and fiber-to-the-home technologies and held senior management positions. From 2004-2006, he was the Chief of the IR Materials and Devices Branch at the US Army Research Laboratory leading research in the area of infrared emitters and detectors. During 2008-2014, Dr. Swaminathan served as the Chief of the Acoustics and Networked Sensors Division at the US Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Armaments Center, (formerly known as ARDEC) Picatinny, NJ, and directed technology development in the areas of acoustic and other passive sensors for hostile fire defeat, IED and explosives detection. Between 2015-2017, he served as a Research Scientist at CCDC Armaments Center, and conducted research on two-dimensional nanomaterials, energy storage systems, neuromorphic processors, photonics, and electro-optics. Dr. Swaminathan is a Fellow of IEEE and of the American Electrochemical Society. He has authored/co-authored 160 publications in peer-reviewed journals and has received 8 patents. He is the coauthor of a book on Materials Aspects of GaAs and InP Based Structures and has edited four books.

Dr. Swaminathan retired from the US Army in Sept 2017. In recognition of his retirement, the flag of the United States of America was flown over the United States Capitol, at the request of Honorable Leonard Lance, Member of Congress. Dr. Swaminathan is currently affiliated with Penn State University and Rice University as Adjunct Professor in the Department of Physics and Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, respectively.

*All Graduate students and post docs who join the call will be entered into a raffle for $100 gift card!


October 1, 2021

Conjugated Polymers: From Chemistry and Processing to Applications
Elsa Reichmanis, Professor and Carl Robert Anderson Chair in Chemical Engineering
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Introduction provided by Steve McIntosh 

Whitaker 303
Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/9198537521

Lunch provided (Subject to change due to COVID-19 Guidance) 

Abstract:
Organic/polymer semiconductors offer opportunities for low-cost device fabrication for applications ranging from energy to health care to security. However, their successful commercialization relies on the design and development of sustainable, robust and reliable materials chemistries and processes.  Molecular design coupled with solution behavior play a significant role in determining a materials thin-film electronic performance. In the search for high performance charge transport materials, molecular structure is a prime consideration, where that structure must be amenable to assembly and organization into nano- through meso-scale architectures that support transport. Here, the relationships between molecular structure and solution processing protocols that provide for the requisite charge transport pathways will be explored.  The resulting fundamental insights will enable the realization of robust and reproducible semiconducting solutions for flexible electronics applications. Further, the ability to manipulate conjugated molecular architectures to support both electronic and ionic transport provide opportunities for the development of robust, high-capacity energy storage solutions.

Biography:
Elsa Reichmanis is Professor and Carl Robert Anderson Chair in Chemical Engineering in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Lehigh University. Prior to joining Lehigh, she was Professor and Pete Silas Chair in Chemical Engineering in the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She started her independent career at Bell Labs where she was Bell Labs Fellow and Director of the Materials Research Department. She received her Ph. D. and BS degrees in chemistry from Syracuse University. Her research interests include the chemistry, properties and application of materials technologies for photonic and electronic applications. The Reichmanis research group is currently exploring polymeric and hybrid organic/inorganic materials chemistries for a range of device and electronic and sustainable energy applications. Reichmanis is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Inventors. She has served as a member of the Bureau of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry; and has been active in the American Chemical Society throughout her career, having served as 2003 President of the Society. Elsa Reichmanis is the recipient of several awards, including the AICHE Margaret H. Rousseau Pioneer Award for Lifetime Achievement by a Woman Chemical Engineer (2018), the ACS Awards in the Chemistry of Materials (2018) and Applied Polymer Science (1999), the ASM Engineering Materials Achievement Award (1996), and the Society of Chemical Industry’s Perkin Medal (2001). In other service, she is an Executive Editor of the ACS Journal, Chemistry of Materials.


October 8, 2021

Open-Shell Molecules: A Radical Design for Organic Optoelectronic Materials
Mark Chen, Assistant Professor, Chemistry

Introduction provided by Elizabeth Young, Assistant Professor, Chemistry

Whitaker 303
Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/9198537521

Lunch provided (Subject to change due to COVID-19 Guidance) 

Abstract:

Open-shell molecules possess unpaired electron density (radical character), which makes them intriguing candidate materials for many optoelectronic applications. Air-stable structures have been reported, but most require lengthy synthetic sequences with limited generality. Our lab has developed a concise synthetic strategy to rapidly access a variety of bisphenalenyls from commercial starting materials. We used this method to synthesize a neutral biradicaloid, Ph2-s-IDPL, and several novel heteroatom-substituted, π-radical cations. One such molecule is O-substituted (Ph2-PCPL)(OTf), which displays electrostatically-enhanced, intermolecular covalent-bonding interactions that impart remarkable charge transport properties. Specifically, we have discovered soluble derivatives that, when mixed with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS), enable the formation of water-processable organic films that demonstrate optically transparency, electrical conductivity, and unusually high electron mobility (μe = 27.2 cm2 V-1 s-1). In these composites, PSS not only serves as a counterion, but also promotes n-doping and solution-phase aggregation, which leads to molecular ordering in solid-state. We have also discovered a N-substituted, red emissive, π-radical cation [(Ph2-PQPL)(OTf)] that is structurally distinct from all other reports of luminescent radicals, and achieves rare antiambipolar charge transport in field-effect transistors. N-substituted bisphenalenyls also display self-sensitized and reversible reactivity with dioxygen, which shows potential for applications for oxygen sensors and antimicrobial coatings.

Biography:

Mark Chen is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Lehigh University. He received his B.A. and Ph.D. in Chemistry from Harvard University with M.-Christina White developing catalytic C-H bond oxidation methodologies. As a Dreyfus postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Jean Fréchet at U. C. Berkeley, he led a team developing polymeric and molecular materials for organic electronic devices. Since coming to Lehigh University, the Chen Lab has focused on the synthesis and application of open-shell organic molecules for optoelectronic materials and devices. Mark is the recipient of several awards, including a New Investigator Award from the Kaufman Foundation (2015) and NSF Career Award (2021).


October 15, 2021

Biomimetic surface development for the detection, inactivation, and study of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum
Kristen Jellison, Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering

Whitaker 303
Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/9198537521

Lunch provided (Subject to change due to COVID-19 Guidance) 

Abstract:
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite, transmitted via ingestion of fecally-contaminated food and water, responsible for a gastrointestinal disease that is generally self-limiting in otherwise healthy people but potentially fatal for immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals. There is currently no medical cure for cryptosporidiosis, and the development of new drug therapies is limited by the inability to replicate intestinal infections in current in vitro cell culture models. Despite advanced water treatment technologies in the developed world, removal/inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) is not guaranteed because the oocysts are small enough (4-8 μm) to pass through sand filters and resistant to chlorine disinfection. Monitoring drinking water supplies for contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts remains critical to identify where interventions in watershed protection and drinking water treatment are needed to protect public health. We collaborated with the Philadelphia Water Department to monitor their drinking water source watersheds for Cryptosporidium oocysts; this work involved both molecular source tracking to identify the watershed sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts as well as the development of a novel approach to Cryptosporidium monitoring using biofilm sampling. While we demonstrated that oocysts attach to environmental biofilms, and that sampling these biofilms provides detection data that are comparable to those obtained using the standard EPA detection method, the inherent variability of environmental biofilms across time and space makes them unlikely to be adopted as a standard oocyst detection method. More recent work in the lab has focused on identifying the mechanisms of oocyst attachment to biofilms to inform the design of biomimetic surfaces to which oocysts will strongly attach. These surfaces are currently under investigation to assess their potential as engineered devices for the detection, and possibly inactivation, of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment. We are also undertaking experiments in which these engineered surfaces will be incubated with bacteria cultured from the human intestinal microbiome to enhance Cryptosporidium oocyst attachment, excystation, and initiation of infection; the goal is to develop an in vitro model of the intestinal surface to support future drug development studies.

Biography:
Kristen Jellison is a professor in the department of civil and environmental engineering at Lehigh University. She serves as the faculty director of Lehigh’s ADVANCE Center for Women STEM Faculty as well as a faculty advisor for Lehigh’s student chapter of Engineers Without Borders. Her research interests focus on the prevention of waterborne disease, with an emphasis on (i) identifying the sources, fate, and transport of pathogens in watersheds, and (ii) making household water treatment more effective, affordable, and accessible to people in developing countries.  She earned her B.S. in civil and environmental engineering from Cornell University and her Ph.D. in civil and environmental engineering from MIT.  Dr. Jellison has received several awards, including an NSF CAREER Award (2006), a Lindbergh Foundation Award (2010), the Deming Lewis Faculty Award (2019), and the RCEAS Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Award (2020).


October 29, 2021
Distinguished Interdisciplinary Rounds

Atomistic simulation of disordered materials
D.A. Drabold, Ohio University

Introduction provided by Himanshu Jain

Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/91985375211

Abstract:
After a historical review of the development of computer simulation and especially molecular dynamics as a tool in condensed matter science, I discuss recent ab initio simulations of amorphous carbon materials and show that low density amorphous carbon is a three dimensional form of warped and wrapped amorphous graphene[1].  With a nod to important emerging concepts, I briefly describe a Machine Learning simulation of an exotic pressure-induced phase transition of amorphous silicon[2] in a 100,000-atom system with density functional accuracy. A remarkable rapid crystallization (into a simple hexagonal phase), occurs near 13 GPa. I show that such large, accurate and temporally extended simulations are required to even detect processes such as the crystallization. 

Biography:
David Drabold was born in Akron, Ohio and received a B.S. in Applied Mathematics from the University of Akron. He received a Ph.D. in Physics from Washington University (St Louis) in 1989, working under Peter Fedders on the theory of nuclear spin relaxation in disordered solids. He shifted from spins and statistical mechanics to electronic structure and materials theory in postdoctoral stints at Notre Dame and the University of Illinois, benefiting from the mentorship of Otto Sankey and Richard M. Martin. He joined the faculty at Ohio in 1993 and was elected Edwin and Ruth Kenedy Distinguished Professor in 2005. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society (2003), the Institute of Physics (UK, 2005) and the Royal Numismatic Society (2008). He has twice been a Visiting Fellow Commoner at Trinity College, Cambridge and is a life member of Clare Hall, Cambridge. He was Leverhulme Visiting Professor of Chemistry at Cambridge in 2009. He has mentored 18 PhDs and several postdocs at Ohio.

Drabold has published about 250 works, the majority of them on amorphous/glassy materials or novel methods to carry out accurate "first principles" studies of materials. Many of these papers report computer simulations of amorphous materials and associated analysis to draw physical conclusions about the form of the disorder, and its consequences to physical observables (structural, mechanical, thermal, vibrational, electronic and optical). He has proposed several novel methods, such as local orbital density functional techniques for dynamical simulation, efficient computation of Wannier functions, methods to infer atomistic structure exploiting both experimental data and ab initio interactions, and most recently methods to compute electronic conduction paths in solids. He is an incorrigible Anglophile and history buff. He is married, and has two grown sons.

*All Graduate students and post docs who join the call will be entered into a raffle for $100 gift card!


                                       November 12, 2021

Monitoring the Surfaces of Materials in Action
Israel Wachs, G. Whitney Snyder Professor, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Director, Operando Molecular Spectroscopy and Catalysis Research Lab

Introducation by Srinivas Rangarajan

Zoom Link: https://lehigh.zoom.us/j/91985375211

Abstract:
Catalysts account for production of products that contribute to ~25% of a western country’s GDP (fuels, chemicals, plastics, pollution control, pharmaceuticals, etc.). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions to the desired products and minimize wasteful byproducts (e.g., CO2 emissions, etc.). Approximately 90% of industrial chemical reactions involve catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts, catalysts that are soluble in a solvent, find application for liquid phase catalysis and heterogeneous catalysts, catalysts that are solids and find application for catalysis occurs at gas-solid and liquid-solid interphases. Thus, heterogeneous catalysts perform catalysis at their solid surfaces (the outermost surface layer, ~0.3 nm). It is critical to be able to determine the relationships between the catalytic surface sites and their activity/selectivity performance since such fundamental knowledge can guide the rational design of improved and advanced catalytic materials.

This presentation will show how multiple spectroscopic techniques have been applied to monitor and establish fundamental catalytic structure-activity/selectivity relationships under reaction conditions (in situ and operando spectroscopy). The focus of the Wachs lab has been on advancing the catalysis science of mixed oxide catalysts with the application of Raman, IR, UV-Vis, atmospheric pressure XPS, Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) spectroscopy, as well as other molecular spectroscopic techniques available at national labs (NMR, EPR and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)). Several examples will be highlighted to demonstrate how such research is being performed to develop new reaction models of catalysis.

Biography:
Israel E. Wachs received his undergraduate education at The City College of The City University of New York where he graduated with a B.E. (ChE) and continued his graduate ChE education at Stanford University under the mentorship of Professor Robert J. Madix in the area of surface science, and graduated with a PhD (ChE). Israel joined Exxon Research & Engineering Company in their Corporate Research Labs after graduate school.  At Exxon, he was involved with many different catalytic technologies over the years One of his inventions on the selective oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride by promoted supported V2O5/TiO2 catalysts became the leading international industrial catalyst for this technology and is still used around the world. He departed Exxon for academia at the end of 1986.

Israel joined the Chemical Engineering Department of Lehigh University in January 1987.  At Lehigh, he set up a world-class catalysis research laboratory focusing on mixed metal oxide catalytic materials and their characterization under reaction conditions (in situ and operando molecular spectroscopy).  These studies have established the foundation for the molecular/electronic structure – activity/selectivity relationships that are developing a unified model of mixed metal oxide catalysts and guiding the rational design of novel and improved catalysts.  The research performed by the Wachs group is well known around the world and reflected by the many national and international honors and his publications are extensively cited in the literature (~40,000 citations and an H-index of >110).

The current focus of the Wachs catalysis group is to develop catalyst characterization techniques under reaction conditions, referred to as operando spectroscopy in the recent literature, and apply them to determine how high profile catalytic systems actually function.  The term operando spectroscopy implies that the catalyst characterization information is being conducted simultaneously with online product analysis to allow for establishing direct structure-activity/selectivity relationships.  Along these lines, the Wachs group has developed instrumentation that can simultaneously obtain Raman, IR, UV-vis and TPSR spectroscopic information and product analysis with an online mass spectrometer/GC system.  This cutting-edge instrument is allowing the Wachs catalysis research group to rapidly develop fundamental molecular/electronic structure – catalytic activity/selectivity relationships for many different catalytic materials and reactions that are leading to development of advanced catalysts.

*All Graduate students and post docs who join the call will be entered into a raffle for $100 gift card!


For more information, please contact Nikki Rump.

*Grand Rounds is a term borrowed from the medical education community to share the latest, unique advancements across all specialties. The lectures will be at the “Scientific American” level and will be suitable for all STEM audience.

*Lectures will be recorded.